Dating a waltham pocket watch
Dating a waltham pocket watch - plish dating
Spindles may also have exterior threads and/or an interior taper at their "outboard" (i.e., facing away from the bed) end, and/or may have a hand-wheel or other accessory mechanism on their outboard end.Spindles are powered and impart motion to the workpiece.
The pedal was usually connected to a pole, often a straight-grained sapling.One person would turn the wood work piece with a rope while the other used a sharp tool to cut shapes in the wood.Ancient Rome improved the Egyptian design with the addition of a turning bow.A lathe may be small and sit on a workbench or table, not requiring a stand.Almost all lathes have a bed, which is (almost always) a horizontal beam (although CNC lathes commonly have an inclined or vertical beam for a bed to ensure that swarf, or chips, falls free of the bed).The system today is called the "spring pole" lathe.
Spring pole lathes were in common use into the early 20th century.It is known as the mother of machine tools, as it was the first machine tool that lead to the invention of other machine tools.The origin of turning dates to around 1300 BCE when the Ancient Egyptians first developed a two-person lathe.In addition to the spindle and its bearings, the headstock often contains parts to convert the motor speed into various spindle speeds.Various types of speed-changing mechanism achieve this, from a cone pulley or step pulley, to a cone pulley with back gear (which is essentially a low range, similar in net effect to the two-speed rear of a truck), to an entire gear train similar to that of a manual-shift auto transmission.Today manually controlled and CNC lathes coexist in the manufacturing industries.