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During the fifth century BC the whole of Euboea became part of the Delian League, which later became the Athenian Empire.
Little is known of the details of this war, but it is clear that Eretria was defeated.
The Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC, in which Philip defeated the combined armies of the Greeks, marked the end of the Greek cities as independent states.
However, under Macedonian rule Eretria experienced a new period of prosperity which lasted until the 3rd century as attested by many inscriptions, by extensions to the west and south sections of the walls and by many other private and public new buildings including the circus.
Eretria's population and importance increased at the same time as Lefkandi began to decline in importance from c. The natural superiority of Eretria's harbour and the importance of trade to the Euboeans is one explanation for this gradual population migration from Lefkandi to Eretria.
The earliest surviving mention of Eretria was by Homer (Iliad 2.537), who listed Eretria as one of the Greek cities which sent ships to the Trojan War.
During the Peloponnesian War Eretria was an Athenian ally against her Dorian rivals Sparta and Corinth.
But soon the Eretrians, along with the rest of the Empire, found Athenian domination oppressive.
This settlement was moved to the top of the Acropolis in the Middle Helladic period (2000-1600 BC) because the plain was flooded by the nearby lagoon.
In the Late Helladic period (1600-1100 BC), the population dwindled and the remains found so far have been interpreted as an observation post. The oldest archaeological finds date the foundation of the city to the 9th century BC.
In the 8th century BC, Eretria and her near neighbour and rival, Chalcis, were both powerful and prosperous trading cities.
Eretria controlled the Aegean islands of Andros, Tenos and Ceos.
The Eretrians were Ionians and were thus natural allies of Athens.