Philipinnes xxx

23-Mar-2020 04:16 by 8 Comments

Philipinnes xxx

Security sector transformation aims to ensure state security without compromising human security.Security sector transformation endeavors to build the capacity of the security sector in order for the state to fulfill its role in advancing human security of its citizens.

Poor governance of the security sector is often a source of internal armed conflicts and private armed violence as well as a great obstacle to peace-building efforts and the strengthening of the rule of law.

Banlaoi* INTRODUCTION In a country undergoing a painful process of nation-building, addressing complex internal armed conflicts is an arduous task of the security sector.

From a traditional and narrow perspective, the Philippine security sector refers primarily to the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) that is mandated to protect the state against internal and external security threats.

As of January 2010, the AFP had a total of around 113,000 personnel, with the Philippine Army having the biggest number of 65,000 personnel followed by the Philippine Navy with 35,000 and the Philippine Air Force with 15,000 personnel.[i] But to view the AFP as the main security sector is utterly misleading.

This paper provides an overview of security sector in the Philippines and identifies some challenges for its transformation.

The major external security concern of the Philippines is the South China Sea Disputes.[x] Its major internal security issues, on the other hand, are local communism, Muslim secessionism and domestic terrorism posed by the New People’s Army (NPA), Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) and the Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG), respectively.[xi] The main document that defines the present juridical personality of the NSC is the Executive Order (EO) No. This document states that the NSC shall perform the following duties: basis depending on the present national crises situation.

So far, President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo held 9 meetings of the NSC from 2001-2004 compared with only 4 meetings during the time of President Joseph Estrada (1998-2001), 7 meetings during the time of President Fidel Ramos (1992-1998), and 3 meetings during the time of President Corazon Aquino (1986-1992).[xiii] President Ferdinand Marcos held the most number of meetings at 33 from 1972-1986.

This paper also aims to provide policy recommendations for the new administration of President Benigno Aquino III in his attempts to improve the quality of overall governance in the Philippines necessary for nation-building.

THE CONCEPT OF SECURITY SECTOR TRANSFORMATION As a concept, security sector transformation presents a paradigm shift in security sector governance.

The NSC membership allows private citizens to be represented in the council and encourages the civil society to be involved in NSC discussions.

But confidentiality over “national security concerns” prevents civil society from really participating.

The concept of security transformation primarily seeks to understand underlying conditions for the emergence of these security challenges and builds capacity to strengthen national and local leadership “in dealing with new security demands and to establish effective processes and structures commensurate with the new challenges.”[ii] The most important intention of security sector transformation is to make the security sector accountable to democratic processes and ensure armed forces to promote democratic norms and principles, which include respect for human rights, observance of international humanitarian law, and upholding the rule of law, among others.

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